Battery energy storage in 2022

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Renewable energy is seeing an unheard-of transformation in the global economy. Inverter-based resources such as solar and wind are replacing conventional synchronously coupled generators throughout the whole power production system. An increase in the demand for battery energy storage systems that can produce long-term reliability and efficiency goes hand in hand with this trend.

New technology is evolving to supplement resources from nuclear and fossil fuels as well as renewable energy sources like wind and solar energy, as energy storage becomes an essential component of the entire grid. Utilising many energy generation sources without interrupting the supply of electricity during periods when renewable energy production is low will increase resilience.

In addition to becoming the talk of the power production business, battery energy storage systems (BESS) cut across as crucial for achieving net-zero sustainable energy targets. Let’s recap the key battery storage trends in 2022.

  1. Battery swapping

India, China, and South-East Asian nations play a significant role in the rapidly expanding worldwide battery swapping business. The Government of India has recommended this technology in their yearly budget for 2021–22.

Battery switching is a system that allows customers to swap their worn-out car batteries for brand-new ones that have been completely charged. The demand on the electric grid is reduced while the charging time is greatly reduced, thanks to this technology. The technology currently only permits integration in two- and three-wheeled vehicles.

Although the Indian strategy-builder Niti Aayog hasn’t provided any specific figures about anticipated subsidies and investments in the technology, one can make an educated guess based on how quickly the technology is gaining traction.

  1. Solid-state batteries

Every Electric Vehicle on the road needs a source of energy. The electrolyte makes up the majority of the weight of the battery, therefore replacing it will make the battery lighter overall.

The weight of the battery pack is greatly decreased by solid-state batteries since the liquid electrolyte is replaced with a solid electrolyte such as glass or ceramic. Additionally, because solid-state batteries are significantly smaller, battery makers can stack more cells per square metre. When liquid electrolytes are exposed to high temperatures, a phenomenon called as vaporisation occurs, which causes the liquid to convert to gas and causes the battery pack to burn.

At higher temperatures, solid-state batteries work significantly more safely and can support heavier loads. Due to this fact, battery manufacturers are shifting towards incorporating solid-state batteries in their pursuit of accomplishing optimised energy storage efficiency.

  1. Evolution from lithium to flow

The main technology used in both BESS and EVs is lithium-ion. 2022 was noteworthy in that it marked the beginning of the industry’s pursuit of novel battery chemistries. These include iron-air batteries, flow batteries, and sodium-ion batteries. These battery technologies are progressively advancing to the commercial production stage, however they are not yet at the same level as lithium-ion.

The pick of these is actually flow batteries, which have a limitless energy capacity and a longer life cycle than their lithium-ion rivals. Before flow batteries are profitable from a commercial standpoint, more work needs to be done.

Flow batteries can be set up as single tanks, which are typically used for smaller applications, or as twin tanks, which are typically on larger footprints. Flow battery system designs vary based on the use and scope of the project. More relatively small flow battery facilities are anticipated to be erected in the near future until a significant commercial track record is established and use cases, costs, and returns on investment are validated.

  1. Second-life batteries

EVs have more robust battery requirements than conventional markets, and batteries significantly degrade within the first five years of operation. The batteries may not meet EV criteria at that point, but they still have a long serviceable life. In stationary energy storage applications like reserve energy storage, which only require rare battery cycling, they can be given a second chance at life.

Battery packs can be modified, recycled, and optimised for a second life while retaining roughly 70–80% of their original capacity. Consumer electronics, telecom towers, permanent energy storage, and less demanding mobile energy storage can all make use of a battery’s remaining capacity.

Used in off-grid, household, and distribution grid markets, repurposed EV batteries can help reduce environmental consequences and increase supply security. These batteries increase material efficiency and have significant positive social and economic impacts on the energy and automobile industries. The second life technology opens up a number of opportunities and market potential for battery insurance, as well as a new source of income for early adopters of EVs.

  1. Cloud-based battery management system

The battery’s voltage, current, temperature, SoH (State of Health), and SoC (State of Charge) are all tracked by the battery management system (BMS). By keeping the temperature steady, it is essential for the battery’s charging and discharging processes. When the battery temperature rises, the BMS manages the heat by regulating the flow of coolants through the system.

The processing capability of battery management systems can be exponentially increased by utilising cloud-based technologies’ processing power. Inferences can be made by cloud-based BMS using BMS data collected from other vehicles in the network. Cloud-based BMS will be able to identify locations where the battery temperatures are greater than usual using a high-fidelity computer simulation of the battery pack.

 

Authored By: Raman Bhatia, Founder and Managing Director, Servotech Power Systems Ltd.

 

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